Author 
Aaron Callaghan & Paul Butler 

Title 
Probability 

Grade Level 
8 

Subject Area 
Mathematics 

Overview of unit / lessons / activities (assumptions of prior knowledge and/or learning) 
This miniunit addressing Experimental and Theoretical Probability engages students in both classroom and computer based activities. Prior to these lessons, students must have an understanding of basic probability terminology as well as general skills with computers including the use of spreadsheet software, concept mapping software and accessing online resources. The lessons included in this package include: 1. Review of "Basic Probability" 2. Internet interactive exploration of experimental and theoretical probabilities (coin tossing and spinner) 3. Rock, Paper, Scissors classroom activity with follow up computer activity 4. Probability Assignment  Concept Mapping with Inspiration 

Correlations to ICT and curriculum outcomes 
Math Outcomes: G1 Conduct experiments and simulations to find probabilities of single and complimentary events G2 Determine theoretical probabilities of single and complimentary events G3 Compare experimental and theoretical probabilities ICT Outcomes: PTS 9.1 use software to brainstorm, develop a thought web, outline, and map ideas under study with independence PTS 9.2 explore curriculum concepts under study using specialized software; measuring, sampling and recording equipment; and computerbased simulations, with teacher assistance PTS 9.5 develop multimedia presentations, based on sound principles of design, with increasing confidence, efficiency and independence RPSD9.1 select appropriate measuring and recording devices and/or software to collect data, discover patterns of change over time, solve problems and make logical decisions based on their investigations; with teacher assistance RPSD 9.2 create and use electronic charts, maps, tables, graphs, spread sheets and databases to collect, analyse and display data independently 

Projected timeline for preparation and for carrying out activities 
If used in entirety, this miniunit has a projected timeline of 69 "50 minute" periods. In addition, some lessons may be "teacher led" if time is limited. 

Equipment Requirements: (computers, software, etc) 
Hardware: Lessons may be teacher led in the classroom with a computer with Internet access and a LCD projector. Student activities are best completed individually or with a partner at a computer with internet access. Students should have access to a printer for their finished work. Software: Web browser such as Internet Explorer, Safari or Firefox: spreadsheet software such as Excel, AppleWorks, or StarOffice Calc; Concept Mapping software such as Inspiration or Kidspiration. 

Teaching materials provided (Blacklines, worksheets, templates, teacher materials) 
All materials are available through the webbased lesson. Links to individual activities are also given here.
Several student worksheets and teacher masters are included:


Resources available for teacher/student use (websites, references, etc) 
BrainPop http://www.brainpop.com/math/dataanalysisandprobability/basicprobability/ (Introduction to Probability) NCTM Illuminations http://illuminations.nctm.org/ActivitySearch.aspx (Search for Adjustable Spinner) National Library of Virtual Manipulatives http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/vlibrary.html (See Data Analysis & Probability Grades 68) Math Goodies http://www.mathgoodies.com/lessons/vol6/intro_probability.html Rubistar http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php (Make your own rubrics, or adapt those made by other teachers) 

Detailed instructions for each activity or lesson (teacher notes, activity information, learning strategies, teacher role, student roles) 
Lesson 1 Review of Probability Time Estimate: one 50 minute period This is meant to be a "teacher led" lesson, best carried out with a computer with internet access and an LCD projector. Teacher will show a BrainPop movie and Interactive quiz called Basic Probability currently offered as a free sample on this web site. Then the teacher will open a review of Probability Review web site at Math Goodies to discuss previous student learning Lesson 2 Internet Interactive Student Activities Time Estimate: two 50 minute periods These two activities should be completed by students in a computer lab setting. If possible, students can work independently at one computer or if need be with a partner sharing a computer. Prior to the class, the teacher should print and copy a student worksheet for each student. The student should complete the sheet and keep it as an artifact to assist them in their miniunit assignment. Alternatively, the teacher can lead students through both activities as a class using a computer and LCD projector. In this case, students should each have their own worksheet to complete as the teacher goes through the activity. Lesson 3 Rock, Paper, Scissors Time Estimate: three 50 minute periods This lesson begins in the classroom with students working with a partner playing 25 games of Rock, Paper, Scissors. Students should each have the activity worksheet or alternatively, an overhead transparency could guide students through the class activity. Class data should be recorded on the whiteboard and acts to increase the number of trials for the activity. Students will complete a worksheet (included) on the possible outcomes of the two player game and then work on a computer to produce a spreadsheet and pie graph of their class data. Lesson 4 Probability Assignment: Concept Map Time Estimate: one to three 50 minute periods In this assignment students will demonstrate their understanding of experimental and theoretical probability by producing a concept map using Inspiration software. Again, students are ideally working independently on a computer or with a partner sharing a computer. Depending on their experience with the program, teachers may wish to spend a period examining the software. The teacher should print and copy the assessment rubric included, sharing it with students prior to completing the assignment. As well, the exemplar included should be shared with students, giving them a better idea of what is expected by the teacher. 

Student products expected 
Students will complete the following:
and will produce: Rock, Paper, Scissors Chart and Pie Graph of Class Data (Computer generated and printed) 

Samples (include teacher notes, assessment information, student work if available) 
Teacher Master  Rock, Paper, Scissors Possible Outcomes Worksheet rps_teacher.rtf (word processor) rps_teacher.pdf (Acrobat Reader) Exemplar Probability Assignment  Concept Map assign_exemplar.rtf (word processor) assign_exemplar.pdf (Acrobat Reader) 

Logistics (organization, grouping, management issues, access to technology) 
The teacher should have general abilities with all software applications used within this miniunit including Inspiration and spreadsheet and web browser programs of choice. 

Assessment information (e.g., rubrics for products and/or process) 
Rubric included: concept_map_rubric.rtf (word processor) concept_map_rubric.pdf (Acrobat Reader) 

Possible extensions 
