Lessons Integrating Information and Communication Technology within a Curriculum Area


Trisha Demone and Jennifer Langford (SSRSB)


Karyotyping Project

Grade Level


Subject Area

Science – Life Science: Reproduction

Overview of unit/lessons/activities (assumptions of prior knowledge/learning)

Students doing this project should be able to learn about a specific chromosomal abnormality in some detail. In partners, students will complete a patient history online to discover what a karyotype of this disorder (either Trisomy 13, Downe Syndrome, or Klinefelter’s Syndrome) looks like, conduct research on this abnormality, and then present their findings to the class with the aid of a poster.

See detailed instructions below for prior knowledge.

Correlations to ICT and curriculum outcomes

Science 9 Outcomes:

113-10 provide examples of genetic conditions that cannot be cured using scientific and technological knowledge at the present time.
305-5 compare factors that may lead to changes in a cell’s genetic information: mutations caused by nature and mutations caused by human activities.
209-5, 210-8 evaluate information and evidence gathered on the topic of genetics and genetic engineering.

ICT Outcomes

SEHI 9.3 understand, model, and assume personal responsibility for the acceptable use of copyrighted and other information resources.
SEHI 9.4 demonstrate an understanding of, and a commitment to, accuracy, ethical behavior, and personal privacy and safety information about themselves, others, and curriculum topics under study.
PTS 9.3 explore the curriculum through a wide range of print and electronic forms; accessing and processing information by means of the specialized techniques associated with the technology they select
CT 9.1 use language in a range of aural, print, media, and electronic forms to explore and express their perceptions, feelings, ideas and attitudes; refine their thinking; and interact, negotiate, and collaborate with others in order to build their understanding.
RPSD 9.6 select and refine a research topic, according to teacher-provided criteria, to fulfill a curriculum requirement, with teacher assistance.
RPSD 9.9 accurately and independently cite information sources.

Projected timeline for preparation and for carrying out activities

All class times are based on periods of about 50 minutes’ duration.

Normal Karyotyping activity – approximately 1 ½ classes
Online Activity and research – 2 classes
Presentations – 1-2 classes

Equipment Requirements: (computers, software, etc)

Computers with Internet
PowerPoint software (for students who choose this type of presentation)

Teaching materials provided (Blacklines, worksheets, templates, teacher materials)

Human Karyotyping Activity (Normal Karyotype) – (Word format) (pdf format)

Chromosome Abnormalities– (Word format) (pdf format)

Rubric for Presentation and Display– (Word format) (pdf format)

Observational Checklist for Project– (Word format) (pdf format)

Resources available for teacher/student use (websites, references, etc)



The Biology Project
A Chromosome Study (with printable images of normal and abnormal karyotypes)

Detailed instructions for each activity or lesson (teacher notes, activity information, learning strategies, teacher role, student roles)

Teachers should first talk about karyotyping, explaining what it is and how it is done. It is important to mention that during mitosis, the 23 pairs of human chromosomes condense and are visible with a light microscope.

For analysis, cells are blocked in mitosis and stained with Giema dye. The dye stains regions of chromosomes that are rich in the base pairs Adenine (A) and Thymine (T). This produces a dark band.
Information from The Biology Project

Teachers should review the definition of homologous chromosomes and discuss characteristics of the sex chromosomes (XY) for male and (XX) for female. Students also should be reminded that 23 chromosomes come from each parent to make an individual with 46 chromosomes (normal karyotype). If either partner contributes any number of chromosomes that is different from 23, the individual will display a chromosomal disorder. The teacher may want to mention the names of three common chromosomal disorders: Trisomy 13, Klinefelter’s Syndrome and Down Syndrome.

Each pair of students should receive a copy of a normal karyotype either male of female, with all 23 chromosomes provided and the Human Karyotyping Activity (Word format) (pdf format) worksheet. This activity will take approximately 1-1 ½ periods (based on 50-minute classes). The students' work from this activity should be collected to examine the accuracy of the karyotyping and discuss with the class any problems that may have arisen.

Next, take the students to the computer lab and go to the website The Biology Project (http://www.biology.arizona.edu/). On the left hand side, students need to click on “Karyotyping” located under the heading “Human Biology”. Students should read through the introduction of the karyotyping activity and then click on “patient history” at the bottom of the page. Each set of partners will be assigned a patient history (Patient A, Patient B or Patient C). Have students complete the karyotype on their assigned patient history and make their patient’s diagnosis. Once the students have made their diagnosis, they should print off their patient’s completed karyotype.

Now, students need to complete research on the chromosomal disorder of their patient. The research should include symptoms, treatments, statistics, medical test that can be done to predetermine this disorder before birth, life expectancy, and any other information that is relevant.

Students can choose to present their information using either PowerPoint or by making a poster.

PowerPoint: Students should provide viewers with an organized arrangement of their information, including the patient history, any pictures (of the karyotype, abnormality etc.) , and information about the patient’s disorder. The last slide should comprise their bibliography.

Poster: Students should arrange their research information on one side of a ½ a sheet of bristol board. Any pictures (of the karyotype, abnormality etc.) should be included on the poster. Students also need to indicate what patient history (A, B, or C) that had on their poster. All sources should be recorded to complete a bibliography.

Students will then use their poster or PowerPoint presentation to bring their information to the class.

Student products expected

  • Normal Karyotyping Activity (on Construction Paper)
  • Poster displaying researched information of assigned patient history.
  • Presentation of their patient history.

Samples (include teacher notes, assessment information, student work if available)

See detailed description above.

Logistics (organization, grouping, management issues, access to technology)

This project is designed for groups of two (teacher or student chosen).

By utilizing and explaining the observational checklist in the beginning, appropriate classroom behavior should be displayed, as it will affect student’s individual mark. The teacher will constantly be monitoring and observing the students while they are working.

One computer per partner would be ideal for. If computers are not available students may be able to rotate in timed intervals using classroom/library computers.

Assessment information (e.g., rubrics for products and/or process)

Students will be evaluated through the use of a rubric and an observational checklist. Partners will have the same mark for the class presentation and the poster. They will be marked individually on their work ethic while they are completing their research and poster. These marks will then be combined to create a final individual mark.

Rubric for Presentation and Display– (Word format) (pdf format)

Observational Checklist for Project– (Word format) (pdf format)

Possible extensions

  1. Students could create a webpage to display their findings
  2. This could be done as a research paper
  3. Presentations could be done using PowerPoint or any other visual software
  4. Additional chromosomal disorders could be added; such as, Turner’s Syndrome, Patau’s Syndrome, and Edward’s Syndrome
  5. If computer access is not possible, students could cut and paste unknown chromosomes to create a karyotpye with one of the disorders, just as they did for the pictures of the normal karyotype in the Human Karyotyping Activity. (Word format) (pdf format)

Adaptations for students requiring additional support

Adaptations for students requiring support may include:

  1. Students may need to work in the learning centre or with the aid of a teaching assistant.
  2. An extended period of time may be needed.
  3. The amount of detail required may be altered to suit a students’ capabilities.
  4. Students may be given the specific resources needed to find their required information. They can then report on the information found.
  5. Students may benefit from working in a group, providing them with support and the chance to work together to complete the task.

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